India and Mughal Article

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Chapter 24: The New Imperialism

European Says in Muslim Regions

Stresses in Muslim Regions

1798- Napoleon's Egyptian campaign

Highlighted Ottoman decline- Egypt was Ottoman province

Opened new period of Western european contact with Muslim regions

Muslim lands

Extended by western The african continent to Southeast Asia

Muslim empires in 1500s

Ottomans in Central East

Safavids in Persia

Mughals in India

Kingdoms in Drop

1700s- Most 3 Muslim empires were in decrease

Central gov't lost control over powerful groups:

Landowning noble

Military elites

Urban art guilds

Widespread problem

Muslim students & faith based leaders

Allied together with the state

Helped stir displeasure against gov't

Faced hazards from Traditional western imperialists

Go up of Muslim Reform Movements

1700s-1800s in Africa & Asia

Anxious religious piety

Emphasized stringent rules of behavior

Usman dan Fodio- reforms of Muslim techniques in north Africa Muhammad Ahmad

Released he was Mahdi- long-awaited messiah of Islam

He & his enthusiasts resisted Uk expansion in Sudan

Wahhabi movement in Arabia

Rejected schools of theology & legislation in Ottoman empire

Recalled chastity & ease of Muhammad's original theories Revolt was put down yet movement made it through

Theories are still influential in Saudi Arabia

European Imperialism

European powers won treaties

Through diplomacy & army threats

Offered favorable trading terms

Special rights to get Europeans moving into Muslim gets

Demanded intended for by Western powers

Forces intervened in local affairs to protect rights

Problems to get the Ottoman Empire

Level of empire extended throughout:

North Africa

Southeastern Europe

Central East

1800s- Empire encountered serious difficulties


Regional rulers

Increased their electric power

Economic complications


Nationalist Revolts Break Out

Internal revolts weakened the multiethnic disposition

Subject people threatened to be able to away

North Africa

Far eastern Europe

Midsection East

Peoples in Balkans gained independence





Suppressed uprisings




Lost control of Egypt

Euro Pressure Increases

European says sought to benefit from decaying empire


1830s- seized Algeria

Hoped to get more Ottoman territory

The ussr

Wanted use of Mediterranean Sea

Schemed to gain power over Bosporus and Dardanelles


Tried to stop Russia's ambitions

Observed Russia because threat to have power in Mediterranean & India

1898- Germany built Berlin-to-Baghdad train

Efforts to Westernize

Rulers saw need to reform- seemed to Western for concepts

Reorganized bureaucracy

Updated system of tax collection

Built railroads

Improved education

Hired Europeans to train a modern military

Teenage boys were delivered to West

Studied science & technology

Received Western personal ideas- democracy & equal rights

Improved medical treatment & farming led to unrest

Population surge

Increased competition for best area

Adoption of Western suggestions increased anxiety

Officials objected to adjustments inspired simply by foreign traditions

Sultans refused reform & tried to restore autocracy

Young Turks Demand Reform

1890s- Group of liberals formed Fresh Turks activity

Was adament reform was only way of saving empire

1908- overthrew the sultan

Could hardly achieve designed reforms- World War We broke out

Armenian Genocide

Ottomans typically let fraction nationalities:

Are in own areas

Practice very own religion

1890s- Nationalism captivated tension

Between Turkish nationalists & minorities seeking own express

Triggered Armenian genocide


Christian people

Concentrated in eastern mountains of disposition


Deliberate attempt to damage

A racial, politics, or ethnic group

Turks accused Armenians of helping Russian strategies against disposition Armenians protested repressive Ottoman policies

Sultan slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Armenians

Over 25 years- 600, 000-1. 5 million Armenians perished



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