Literature Review Write Up with Cover Site Essay

Vending Machine Food Environment Evaluation

Literature Assessment

Erin Fitzharris University of Iowa-School of Public Health Leslie Klein New jersey State University Extension Carol Voss Iowa Department of Public Health Fit for Life System Summer 2008 1

The meals environment has only been recently studied since an important contributor to the dietary decisions persons make every single day; decisions which ultimately influence both short- and long term health outcomes. The created environment, or the surroundings we create intended for the areas we live, work, shop, and so on, influences the diet environment, consisting of the external cues that influence one's food choices and ingestion (Sallis & Glanz, 2006). Generally, the nutrition environment in the many communities in the U. T. focuses on ease, fast food, and large portion sizes and neglects fresh fruits and vegetables (2006). A diet environment favorable to healthy and balanced eating, exactly where foods just like low-fat milk, fruits, fresh vegetables, and whole grain bread are readily available at a local grocery or convenience shop, is less probably found in lower-income communities (Frank et al., 2006; Strahlung et approach., 2007). Even more, when healthful items are offered, they are prone to cost more (Glanz et ing., 2007). Therefore , one opportunity for enhancing eating behaviours is to change the nutrition environment in order to make an environment that may be more favorable to healthful eating. Many leading companies in health and nutrition, such as the World Health Organization, the Institute of drugs, the International Obesity Activity Force, plus the Centers to get Disease Control and Avoidance, " include identified environmental and plan interventions as the most promising methods for creating population-wide improvements in eating, physical exercise, and pounds status” (Glanz et al., 2005 p. 330).

However , before environmental interventions will be undertaken, the nutrition environment must first be quantitatively assessed in order to identify the principal areas which to focus this kind of interventions. 1 instrument produced to achieve this aim is the Nutrition Environment Actions Study (NEMS), which has been accustomed to assess the nutrition environment of restaurants, food markets, and grocery stores (Glanz ain al., 3 years ago; Saelens et al., 2007). When examining the

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nutrition environment of eating places, researchers checked out the following elements: availability of well balanced meals, facilitators to healthful ingesting (i. elizabeth., nutrition information about the menu), barriers to healthy consuming (i. electronic., menu attempts special requests), pricing (i. e., healthier entrees less expensive than regular entrees), and signage (i. e., showcasing of healthful options) (Saelens et approach., 2007). This application of NEMS to fast-food and sit-down restaurants revealed that 21% from the sit-down restaurants and 36% of the pret a manger restaurants examined had healthier main food; however , of all main meals assessed through this study, less than 9% were considered healthy and balanced, indicating that diners have limited, if any kind of, healthy main dish alternatives when eating at restaurants (2007).

However , grocery stores, eating places, and grocery stores are not the sole avenues through which we purchase food; vending machines produce food and beverages accessible in a variety of places where these items may well not otherwise be purchased. In 2006, the locations coming from all vending machines in the U. S. could possibly be broken down the following: manufacturing services (33. 8%), offices (23. 5%), price tag sites (10. 7%), universities and educational institutions (9. 6%), hospitals and nursing homes (7%), hotels and motels (4. 4%), correctional facilities (3. 3%), armed forces bases (1. 7%), and restaurants, pubs, clubs (1. 7%), while using remaining 4. 4% of the vending machines' locations labeled as ‘other'. Sales by all snack machines in 2006 totaled $22. 54 billion (Maras, 2007). Much interest has been given to vending equipment in colleges in recent years; whilst schools happen to be home to a...

References: Baar, A. (2008). Dishing out nutrition. Restaurants & Establishments, 118(7): 93-94. Bassett, Meters. T., Dumanovsky, T., Huang, C., Silver precious metal, L. M., Young, C., non-as, C., Matte, To. D., Chideya, S., & Frieden, Big t. R. (2008). Purchasing tendencies and calorie information by fast-food restaurants in Nyc, 2007. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8). Boehmer, To. K., Brownson, R. C., Haire-Joshu, Deb., & Dreisinger, M. M. (2007). Patterns of childhood obesity prevention legislation in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease, 4(3): A56. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2006). University health procedures and applications study. Seen on 06 30, 2008 at: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/shpps/index.htm Center intended for Science in the Public Curiosity (CSPI). (2004). Dispensing gunk: How institution vending undermines efforts to feed children well. Utilized on June 24, 08 at: http://www.cspinet.org/dispensing_junk.pdf Chriqui, L. F., Eidson, S. H., Bates, They would., Kowalczyk, T., & Chaloupka, F. L. (2008). State sales tax costs for sodas and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending devices, 2007. Record of Public well-being Policy, up to 29: 226-249. Fiske, A. & Cullen, K. W. (2004). Effects of promotional materials on snack sales of low-fat products in teachers' lounges. Diary of the American Dietetic Affiliation. 104(1): 90-93. Frank, M., Glanz, E., McCarron, Meters., Sallis, T., Saelens, M., & Chapman, J. (2006). The space distribution of food outlet type and quality about schools in differing constructed environment and demographic situations. Berkeley Organizing Journal, nineteen: 79-95. France, S. A., Jeffery, L. W., Account, M., Breitlow, K. K., Baxter, L. S., Hannan, P., & Snyder, M. P. (2001). Pricing and promotion results on less fat vending snack food purchases: The CHIPS examine. American Record of Public welfare, 91(1): 112-7.

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Gemmill, E. & Cotugna, In. (2005). Snack machine policies and procedures in Delaware. The Journal of School Breastfeeding, 21(2): 94-9. Glanz, E. & Hoelscher, D. (2004) Increasing fresh fruit and vegetable intake by changing conditions, policy and pricing: Restaurant-based research, tactics and advice. Preventive Medicine, 39: S88-S93. Glanz, T., Resnicow, K., Seymour, M., Hoy, T., Stewart, They would., Lyons, M., & Goldberg, J. (2007). How major restaurant chains plan their menus, the role of profit, demand and overall health. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5): 383-388. Glanz, K., Sallis, J. N., Saelens, M. E., Honest, L. G. (2005). Healthier nutrition surroundings: Concepts and measures. American Journal of Health Advertising. 19(5): 330-333. Glanz, K., Sallis, T. F., Saelens, B. E., Frank, L. D. (2007). Nutrition environment measures review in stores (NEMS-S): Development and evaluation. American Journal of Preventive Medication, 32(4): 273-281. Greves, They would. M. & Rivara, Farrenheit. P. (2006). Report greeting card on school snack food policies among the Combined States' greatest school zones in 2004-2005: Room intended for improvement. The International Log of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, several: 1 . Healthful profits via healthy ingesting. (2008). Snack International, 42(4): 19. Healthy and balanced vending equipment offer fresh opportunity. (2007). In Business, 29(2): 27. Hendel-Paterson, M., People from france, S. A., Story, M. (2004). Parental attitudes to soft drink vending machines in high colleges. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104: 1597-1600. Hoerr, S. M. & Louden, V. A. (1993). May nutrition data increase product sales of beneficial vended snack foods? Journal of School Health, 63(9), 386-390. Kubik, M. Sumado a., Lytle, M. A., Hannan, P. T., Perry, C. L., & Story, Meters. (2003). The association with the school meals environment with dietary behaviours of youthful adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7): 1168-1173. 12

Kubik, Meters. Y., Lytle, L. A., & Story, M. (2005). Soft drinks, chocolate, and junk food: What father and mother and teachers think about the midsection school food environment. Record of the American Dietetic Association, 105(2): 233-9. Lee, Watts. W. Ur. (2007). A review of the chidhood obesity. The chidhood Diabetes, 8(9): 76-87. Maliderou, M., Reeves, S., & Noble, C. (2006). The result of interpersonal demographic elements, snack usage and vending machine work with on oral health of children residing in London. English Dental Record, 201(7): 441-4. Malik, Versus. S., Schulze, M. B., & Hu, F. W. (2006). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and extra weight: A systematic assessment. The American Journal of Clinical Nourishment, 84(2): 274-88. Maras, E. (2007). Point out of the snack industry statement. Automated Merchandiser [Serial online]. Seen on June 24, 2008 at: www.amonline.com/content/reports/files/0807%20SVI_report.pdf Messier, G., Cloutier, G., & Rowe, S. (2004). Fuel to Xcell: Healthy and balanced vending equipment program. Seen 9 September 2008 at: http://action.web.ca/home/nutritio/attach/ottawa-fueltoxcellreport-eng.pdf. Murnan, J., Value, J. They would., Telljohann, S. K., Dake, J. A., & Boardley, D. (2006). Parents' awareness of curricular issues influencing children's fat in fundamental schools. Record of School Overall health, 76(10): 502-11. NAMA runs healthy vending program. (2008). Food Managing, 43(5): twenty four. Neumark-Sztainer, Deb., French, S i9000. A., Hannan, P. J., Story, Meters., & Fulkerson, J. A. (2005). College lunch and snacking patterns among kids: Associations with school meals environment and policies. Intercontinental Journal of Behavioral Nourishment and Physical exercise, 2: 13.

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Saelens, B. At the., Glanz, E., Sallis, M. F., & Frank, L. D. (2007). Nutrition environment measures examine in eating places (NEMS-R): Expansion and evaluation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(4): 282-289. Sallis, J. Farreneheit. & Strahlung, K. (2006) The part of constructed environments in physical activity, eating and unhealthy weight in childhood. The Future of Kids, 16(1): 89-108. Shimotsu, S. T., French, S. T., Gerlach, A. F., & Hannan, L. J. (2007). Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: Measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at several metropolitan coach garages. Foreign Journal of Behavioral Nourishment and Physical Activity, (4): 18. Smith, A. M., Lopez-Jimenez, F., McMahon, M. Meters., Thomas, Ur. J., Wellik, M. A., Jensen, Meters. D., & Hensrud, M. D. (2005). Action on obesity: Report of a Mayonaise Clinic nationwide summit. Mayo Clinic Actions, 80(4): 527-32. Sothern, M. (2004). Unhealthy weight prevention in children: Exercise and nourishment. Nutrition, 20(78): 704-708. Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Redmond, L., Kouba, J., Hellwig, M., Davis, R., Martinez, L. I., & Williams, L. (2007). Introducing devices change in the schools: The case of faculty luncheons and vending devices. American Record of Community Psychology, 39(3-4): 335-45. Wiecha, J. M., Finkelstein, G., Troped, S. J., Fragala, M., & Peterson, T. E. (2006). School snack machine employ and fast-food restaurant employ are connected with sugar-sweetened drink intake in youth. Journal of the American Dietetic Relationship, 106(10): 1624-30.

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