Urbanisation Counter-Urbanisation in Rio de janeiro Da Janeiro Ledc Article

URBANISATION/ COUNTER-URBANISATION IN RIO DE JANEIRO DA JANEIRO (LEDC)

Found from: http://jumpingpolarbear.com/2012/01/11/ufc-142-in-rio-de-janeiro/

The city of Rio de Janeiro can be found on Brazil's south-east coastline. It has a populace of approximately 14. 7 million people, so that it is one of Brazil's largest funds. The number of inhabitants has grown for several reasons.

Firstly, natural increase (this is when the delivery rate is usually higher than the death rate). Secondly, is definitely the term ‘urbanisation'. This is where, after some time millions of people include relocated by rural areas into the city of Rio. 65% of city growth is because this movement, often caused by a variety of ‘push and move factors'.

WHAT IS URBANISATION?

Found from: http://www.orbville.com/forum/photos/113609.

‘Urbanisation' is the process whereby the percentage of folks living in towns and metropolitan areas increases over those who live in rural areas. According to Duddin, 1996 ‘as the world's inhabitants has grown the proportion of individuals living in neighborhoods and cities have also increased'.

HOW DOES URBANISATION TAKE PLACE?

• The motion of people (migration) from non-urban to cities exceeds that of residents in the urban to rural.

• Life expectancy is increased in urban than those of rural neighbourhoods. Resulting in even more people residing in the metropolitan area. There is often better access to medical treatment and other companies than country parts.

• Natural inhabitants increase is greater in urban than in rural areas, which leads into a rapid increase in urban human population.

• Urbanisation is happening over a global size. Below are indicators of its ever changing progression.

• In 1900 simply 10% of the world population occupied urban areas (class notes).

• Whereas, today a staggering 47% of the world population lead a great urban life-style. (Class notes).

People migrate into cities for various reason, these are generally known as ‘Urban pull factors'. Moving into the location can mean better career leads, salary boost and more trusted sources of meals and casing. This can favorably change their way of life.

Overcrowding in the city leads to different problems, some of which have very severe and detrimental results on the environment, housing and general health of its inhabitants. Some examples of they are increased air pollution, traffic congestion not to mention the increase in crime level. This makes it a harmful and difficult destination to live.

PRECISELY WHAT IS COUNTER-URBANISATION?

[pic]

Sourced via: http://opengecko.com/geography.

This requires people leaving cities in favour of rural areas. non-etheless, however may move, they tend to carry on with patterns and standards of living used in their very own previous city environments. In respect to Flint (2001, g. 12) " there is although a routine of inner city decline and growth of inhabitants in tiny towns and villages in the countryside”.

Two of the factors that encourage this process:

1 . Less difficult movement due to rising car ownership and construction of motorways.

2 . Developments in information technology and telecommunication which allow individuals to communicate very easily over very long distances.

WHAT IS CAUSING COUNTER-URBANISATION?

There is no sole, simple reason why people are departing large urban centers and going to small towns and villages. It can be in fact a mix of factors that according to Flint (2001, p. 129) include:

• Improvements in transport, especially the construction of recent motorways and/ or train routes that enable longer- distance commuting;

• Householder's perceptions of the differences in standard of living between the metropolis and smaller sized towns and villages;

• Improvements in health, education and cultural services.

Because of the recent and rapid development there has been a severe shortage of housing driving people to live in overcrowded Favelas (temporary accommodation). Nearly 20% of...

Bibliography: ELECTRONIC SOURCES

• Claire Downie (2010) Favelas [online]

• LABELLISE BASSE CONSOMMATION Bitesize (2012) [online]. Available by:

http://bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesizze/geography/urban_environments/urban-models.html [Accessed: almost 8 th Feb 2012]

• Brazil Housing (2006) [Online]. Available from: http://brazilhousing.com/ Accessed: 21 saint February 2012]

• Endangered Eden (2009) [online]

• Igougo (2007) Rj journal. [Online]. Available from: http://www.igougo.com/journal-j73071-Rio_de_Janeiro-Museums_amp_Sites_of_Rio.html [Accessed: 4th 04 2012]

• Net Geography (2008) Urbanisation

• Opengecko (1999) Geography [online]. Offered from: http://opengecko.com/geography/igcse-geography [Accessed: 24th Mar 2012]

• Orbville (2007) Rj Photos [online]

• 6th Sense Type College (2005) Geography. [Online]. Offered from: http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/geography/pages/settlements/definitions.asp#12. [Accessed: 4th April 2012]

BOOKS

в–Є Duddin, Meters. (1996) Metropolitan Change and its particular Management, Birmingham: Hodder and Stoughton

в–Є Flint, C and D

в–Є Waugh, D. (2003) The New Larger World, Second Edition: Nelson Thornes



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